Warren MicroTeaching Presentation
Turning to everybody. How are you today? Good. All right, good deal. Well, remember, we are in the first part of our cardiovascular system unit, and we're starting off by looking at the blood, and then we're going to look at the different organs, and vessels, and all of that. That's involved in the system itself. So before we begin, let's build on what we talked about yesterday. Who remembers the different components of the blood? What types of cells or platelets? All right, anybody else? You're about to say something. Okay, great. Anybody else? Yeah. Red blood cell. And if anybody remember the fluid part of the blood. That's not correct. All right, good job. All right, so these are the four main components of the blood. We group these first three that you mentioned, the form element because they're solid. And then of course, we have this last one, the fluid part is going to be the brown substance and fibers that are going to transport the rest of the core elements throughout the body, okay? What are some of the functions of our blood? Oxygenation. It's a very oxygen. For some other things, what do you think about? Now we want these different components are. What do you think Wi-Fi is not infection? So they're going to help find infection. The change you mentioned, or you mentioned the oxygenation, if you think it's quite what's a red blood cells that are involved in that process. These are going to be involved in oxygenation. Hearing our oxygen throughout the body, what do you think with the remote? Yeah, it's the blood clotting. Stop you from bleeding. All right, good job. I remember what we talked about yesterday. And then, of course, plasma is the fluid that's transporting all of these the best solar mechanisms for how these transfer throughout the blood. All right, good deal. So today we're going to take this a little bit but we're going to talk about more specifically the red blood cells today and their purpose in determining blood types. Our learning objectives for today, first of all, we're going to learn some new vocabulary terms. So we're going to contrast the terms antigen and antibody that they're going to hear those two. They're very important for blood typing. And then what determines blood type? All right, so blood types. First of all, red blood cells that we've been looking at also known as erythrocytes, these are covered with proteins called antigen. For our red blood cell is a thigh concave despite this. And it's a cell. It's got different proteins on the surface of it. And these proteins we're going to call them antigens. And we'll have the antigen. An antigen is basically, I think of it as like a main tag. Saying hi, I am type a blood, or I am type AB blood or I'm type B or if there's none present, it's going to be tight, which I think is similar to the data. It's a marker for an identifier that's going to let us know what the belongs to that person. And then that's going to also come factor into determining what types of antibodies we have present in our body. So an antibody, that's our next term we're going to talk about. What do you know about antibodies? What do they do for us? By disease. Disease or at least or is it something infections available at bacteria and viruses? Do they belong in the body? Bacterias or butters. No, they don't belong. So they're foreign to our bodies. So our bodies produce antibodies that will fight against these things that are formed. So they're going to recognize other factors that are in the plasma that don't belong so that they can initiate an immune response. So when you say cancers are infections, that's also another part of what string. Yes. Okay, so let me go back to this first second. So looking at the surface of a red blood cell, so if you look at the side, it kind of has this apparent. You'll see in this picture that we've got what types of a, B and a B listed up here. We're going to talk about what makes each of those the way they are, but notice these little spiky things that you see on the surface of the red blood cell. These are the antigens. They are proteins that are on the surface of these cells that are going to serve as identifiers, letting the body know that it belongs to them. So if you are type a one, notice that these triangular proteins. Now they're not really like this, but just to simplify, we're going to draw them like that. So if you're type a, you might have the triangular protein monitor. So if your body comes in contact with cells that look like this, recognize that it belongs to it. Now let's just say for a minute, you are tight, bagels. And you have the circle. The surface marker, and your surface antigen here. Cells would all look like. All look like this. And it would recognize that if the blood. Now AB, it's not both. You can see in this picture over here it's got both the triangle and the circle on its surface. So those are its surface proteins that identify that way. And then notice, oh, it has nothing on it. It does not have any identifiers on it. And that's going to be very important to understand what is on each surface of the different red blood cells when we get into blood type. So keep that in mind as we're going to go through these next couple of slides. All right, so we're determining blood type, our a, B, and O blood types. We've already mentioned the previous slide. They're determined by the presence or lack of antigen on our surface. And also notice that OAB and AB like we talked about on the slide before, but now we've added some less than a month. The plus is in minuses are determined by another antigen called the RH antigen. We're racist antigen. So these antigens are found on red blood cells just like the others, but it determines that you have the positive version or the lack of it means you have the negative version of this. Okay? So let's just look at a few of those right here. Oh negative. There's nothing on the surface, meaning it has no surface antigens. Right? Why don't we stay down here on the a positive? What do y'all notice on the surface of it? And I thought the orange. So an a positive person is going to have the a surface antigen and the RH servicing. All right, let's look over here at a, B positive. What do you see on its surface? Which antigens are present there. All right, it's got the RH, it's got the a and it's got the B antigen. So with that all of those present on cancer. Okay, now why do you think it's important to know what blood type someone is? Right, they need a transfusion. Do you think something bad might happen if you gave somebody that was O negative blood from someone that was a negative? Yeah. It's going to attack it. It's not going to recognize it because remember what it recognizes themselves is what it has on itself. So anything new that's introduced in the system is going to have a reaction to it. All right, so you mentioned transfusion as our next term we're going to talk about transfusions are when we transfer blood from one individual to another. We want you to transfusion. You're injured and lost a lot of blood. Surgery? Yes, surgery. We have medical procedure like that. You're going to have to have blood on standby in case you lose too much blood. The transfusions are simply animal we just donate blood from one person to another. And so it's very important before a procedure like that that you know the patient's blood type so that you don't end up with a heart or reaction. Mom with this is when you have this splitting or division of red blood cells. And that's what's going to happen if you introduce the wrong blood type to someone. You're going to have what we call a hemolytic reaction. Chemo referring to the hemoglobin inside the red blood cells like this means split of here you're splitting up the red blood cell and that's not good. If you split up the red blood cells, you think patient's going to get enough oxygen to the cells in their body. No. We need oxygen to survive. So we don't have the cell that's responsible for transmitting the oxygen throughout the body, then the patient's going to eventually not get into oxygen and body systems are going to start to shut down. That determine the different type of blood we do with called in agglutination tips. Now this is a test where we basically give person blood and we add antibodies to it to determine what type they are. Because we don't know what type one we are. Until we've done this test, probably the nation tests. So when you have that homolysis or splitting of the red blood cell together, so in order to figure out what blood type someone is, we're going to take a sample and we're going to add antibody to that sample to determine what type of blood they are. So if you look at these two samples up here, this one on the left shows some plumping. This means we have a positive result for agglutination. Now, this does not mean the person is a part of one type. It just means that whatever antibody we added to the patient's last year, it reacted. If we don't want that to happen, if we have a transfusion. We would know this blood type is not compatible. This one on the right indicates that we didn't have something so it would be in comparative blood type, right? So we look at this chart here, this tells us who can receive blood from someone else. You can receive blood from someone else that either contains the same antigens as you. So if you were type a, you could receive from someone that had type a blood. Or you could receive from somebody that was taught both that didn't have anything on their service. So very important to know that. So as we go through this table, I have a worksheet that I want you to do and follow along. So we're going to work on filling this in as we go through this worksheet.