Basic overview of events leading to WWII and the Holocaust, resulting in the creation of Israel
Today we start looking at the next great conflict in Europe, World War II.
So remember when we look at the timeline, we?ve got Middle Ages which developed Feudalism.<br>
We go to the Black Death and then Renaissance.<br>
Renaissance overlap with the Exploration period were we know countries like Spain and England exploring and colonizing other areas of the world like North and South America.<br>
In addition to other areas that we have not talked about yet, we have Africa, South Asia. A lot of it croatian which then led to the Industrial Revolution were you are leading from farm jobs, factory jobs, machines, steel power, and really building up the factory industry which rolls us into World War I. Now you have all these factories, that could make all of these weapons. <br>
And so World War I, let?s see if you can remember, on June 28, 1914, you have the Arch Duke Ferdinand of Austria Hungary was visiting an area he was fighting about with Serbia. So a Serbian Assassin shot him, and then began World War I.<br>
So it was like, you have friends, Austria - Hungary have friends, so their friends hop in the fight.<br>
So Germany, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire along with Austria-Hungary Central Powers.<br>
And so Serbia?s friends joined in. You?ve got to fight somebody with their friends, your friends should join in.<br>
So you got Serbia, Great Britain, France, Belgium and Russia at the Allied Powers. And then eventually United States jumped in, as well.
We know that the Central Powers lost World War I.<br>
And the Allied Powers were the victors. And so both sides came together to sign the Treaty of Versailles. <br>
Which was, as you can see in this newspaper, ?Treaty signed; War Over?
So the Treaty of Versailles was the contract that ended World War I.
And remember, the Treaty of Versailles blamed Germany for the War.
Even though Serbia really started it, Germany was really aggressive.
They kind of used the war to take over a bunch of different areas to expand besides their own country.<br>
And so the Treaty of Versailles, and the country that won, made Germany take a lot of blame for the war. <br>
They fined them $33 Billion dollars for reparations. <br>
Reparations are treaty words for fine. We may know that fine is a punishment if you did something wrong. <br>
Germany also had to surrender the land that they took over. The Treaty of Versailles made sure of that. <br>
So then what?<br>
Germany was mad about this. They didn?t technically start the war, Serbia did. Serbia was on the side that won. Germany was on the side that lost. So the Germans were thinking this was not fair. They couldn?t event pay the fines.<br>
I don?t have $33 Billion and neither did Germany.<br>
And so they started running out of money and they had to pay high bills.
So the people of Germany were looking for a solution and a leader. They were poor, with high bills, and that is always a bad place to be. <br>
They ended up looking towards this man. <br>
So we are going to move past this idea that World War I and the Treaty of Versailles and the punishment that Germany faced from the Treaty of Versailles is what led into World War II. <br>
One of my students said, ?So it?s really like, one BIG war.?<br>
It kind of is. It?s like you have World War I, and then you have a half time, and then you have World War II.<br>
So World War II started within World War I. They need somebody to blame for their problem so they started blaming a group of people called the Jews. <br>
If you remember from when we learned about religion, the Jews are the people who follow the religion called Judaism. It is both a religion and also an ethnic group of people. <br>
Ethnic meaning like race people. Ethnicity.<br>
So Germany started blaming the Jews people. Why?<br>
The Jews had a lot of people who blamed them for things. And also, if you were German, there were more Germans in Germany than Jews people in Germany. So you are not going to blame the biggest group. You are going to blame the smallest group because it?s easier.<br>
Again, I?m not saying that any of these is right. You should never blame anybody on anything based on ethnicity. Every person is responsible for their own behaviour. But this was what was going on.<br>
And they also needed a strong leader. They were desperate. They were hungry. And they needed a leader who could get them out of this problem. And that ended up to be Adolf Hitler, who I know, many of my students have hear before, kind of goes down, if you are making a list of the number one top terrible people whoever lived, a lot of people would put Hitler on the top of their list. We will talk about why.<br>
So, Hitler came into power and he began blaming and punishing the Jews for all of Germany?s problems.<br>
He kept on saying, ?Everything was wrong because of these group of people! Everything was wrong because of these group of people! Everything was wrong because of these group of people!?<br>
And other people started to agree with him.<br>
And so the name would spread that message.<br>
Other Germans would spread that message particularly a group of people called the Nazis.<br>
They would spread that message that everyone that?s wrong was the fault of the Jews.<br>
And they started rounding up the people and the Jews would go into concentration camps. And that?s where we start rolling into World War I.
So they need somebody to blame, they need a strong leader, Germany is mad about having to pay these fines.<br>
Germany is mad about giving up lands.<br>
Germany wanted to get back land but they are forced to give back.
So they attacked Poland. Their next door neighbor, that they had given back to after World War I.<br>
And that leads us to World War II here in our timeline of Europe. <br>
So in September 1st, 1939, Germany attacks Poland. They wanted their land back. <br>
So all of a sudden, just like World War I, we have got a war again.
Just like World War I, we have got a lot of sides, because everyone was just in a alliance at this point. So when you?re on a fight, you?re friends are on a fight.<br>
So we have Germany, Bulgaria, Italy and Japan. They were going to act as the Axis Powers. <br>
And Great Britain, France, Belgium and Russia. They are going to act as the Allied Powers.<br>
Note, these are mostly the same sides as World War I.<br>
So again, it?s like one Big War. you have a first half, which is World War I, and you have a half time, and you have a World War II. <br>
So let?s talk about it, why wasn?t the United States joining their friends. Well, because we were over here.<br>
But here?s what happened. <br>
Japan is the Axis Powers. The Axis Powers are the bad guys.
So Japan starts sneaking their ships and planes across the Atlantic Ocean to the territory of Hawaii and attacks the town of Pearl Harbor. They wanted to use that to go over the United States and started attacking the United States. <br>
They couldn?t make all the way the United States. But they could make a partway to Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. They could use that base to further attack the United States, and make United States Japanese Territory.
So it was, Hitler was going to attack Europe. Japan was going to attack Asia and North America. And that?s how they wanted it to be.<br>
Fortunately, we know they didn?t take over United States. <br>
But on December 7, 1941, Japan attacks the United States, so the United States enters the war.<br>
Somebody fights us, we were going to attack. So we joined sides with the Allied Powers.<br>
Again, I think I mentioned this before, except for the whole revolutionary war, war of the 1812 things, we?re pretty much always on the side of Great Britain. They call it a special relationship. It?s a country we worked with a lot. <br>
And so, if you are unsure, United States and Great Britain are always going to be allied and they are going to be part of the Allied Powers.
So that?s how it goes, right? <br>
You have these two groups, the Axis Powers and the Allied Powers fighting each other. <br>
And the United States is getting involved because Japan attacked us and so we joined the Allied Powers.<br>
In the meantime, we need to go back to something we talked about before, because you have got all these things going on at the same time.
We said that Germany were needing to blame somebody for their problems and they were choosing to blame a group of people called the Jews, a religious and ethnic group.<br>
And we also know that Adolf Hitler came to power and began blaming and punishing the Jews for what was wrong by rounding them up and sending the Jews to what are called concentration camps.
So we are going to talk about what that is. This is a great time to introduce you to a word called, ?Somber?. That?s a new vocabulary of word for you to know. Somber means kind of sad and kind of serious. A melancholy but you may not know. It?s kind of an empty sadness.
So this next part of is a little more somber, a little more serious. Just know that going in.<br>
Because rounding up the Jewish people and putting them in concentration camps is what?s historically called the Holocaust.
Holocaust is a word that means to destroy on a mass scale, especially by fire. So you are destroying a lot by fire. <br>
And another word you also need to know is Genocide, which means killing of one type.<br>
Again, all of these are somber vocabulary words.<br>
So Hitler began blaming and punishing the Jews. And you could say, he started eliminating the Jews.<br>
And really, when you want to get down to it, he started murdering the Jews.<br>
He picked this one group of people to kill, genocide, and to destroy on a mass scale, so that would be a Holocaust.<br>
So that happened in a lot of ways but primarily through concentration camps.<br>
And it wasn?t only the Jewish people, although that was the largest group, it was also Gypsies. Anybody who was an opponent of Hitler, he started rounding up on these concentration camps. <br>
And over 12 million dies in Hitler or Nazi concentration camps. His group was called the Nazi.<br>
So what end up happening was that he would use his army to round up these group of people, send them to camps, and you were sorted. You either were able to work, so they put you in a slave labor. Or you were not able to work, and so you were immediately murdered by some really gruesome methods. We will learn a little more about that later.
So that was it. You get on a train and your life is essentially over.
For some of these people going to these concentration camps, the trains would drop them off, and they wouldn?t even be sorted, they would all be killed.<br>
So over 12 million people. Including 6 million Jewish people, died in Hitler or Nazi concentration camps. <br>
To commit this genocide, he was particularly killing one type of people which was the Jews people.<br>
So this is the map and you can see this yellow rectangle saying ?Solid squares represent select camps. Because of map scale, not all camps can be shown or labeled.?<br>
So every single square on this map represents a concentration camp.
So you?ll see in the yellow rectangle you can see, ?Solid squares represent select camps.?<br>
That represents millions and millions of people who were sent to experience some very horrible things. <br>
And some people did survive. So we know over 12 million people were killed, there were also some people that did survive. So we are talking about millions and millions of people at these different camps.
And so through the fighting, the Axis Powers end up losing powers, and the Allied Powers win. <br>
And so World War II ended in 1945 with millions of soldiers wounded worldwide.<br>
War refugees all over Europe going back home.<br>
Millions of Jews and others were killed.<br>
And the creation of Israel as a modern country refuge for the Jewish people. <br>
So we are talking about this for a quick second, it was a refuge for the Jewish people. Refuge meaning ?Safe Place.<br>
And so they made a plan. The UN Partition Plan. And they said hey we are going to take this land of Palestine and we are going to split it apart. So in 1946, the green was the Palestine area, and the white was where the Jewish people typically lived. <br>
And we are going to split it apart between Palestine and Israel. And why?<br>
Because the world wanted a Safe Place for the Jewish people after World War II.<br>
The Jewish people have been persecuted all over Europe. They have been rounded up, then killed. They had been attempted to be a genocide complete wiping out. <br>
So the world was like, ?We will give you a safe place. For safety and apology after the Holocaust.?<br>
But there was a problem with that. <br>
Israel was given land that already belonged to someone else.
We didn?t give them part of the United States. We gave the Palestine which belonged to somebody else already. And so we are going to see how that develops when we study the Middle East unit. But Israel was created initially to be a safe place for the Jewish people after World War II. <br>